Animal Form and Function links

 Animal Form and Function

Introductory undergraduate lectures in anatomy and physiology – Podcast Lectures 
Each lecture is approximately 75 minutes. This is not required but the lectures are exceptionally well done for those interested.  Current lectures have links to the outline and blackboard.  Additional advanced lectures, and lectures from previous years are available.  Students may be interested in listening to a single topic. It should be noted that the lectures are by date, not subject.  You need to listen to the first few minutes to determine the topic.
The physiology tutorials are from Chapter 41 to Chapter 52. The student may use any of these when studying.   Each chapter has one or two tutorials, each about 2 minutes.  Each tutorial has four elements: an introduction that describes the topic to be illustrated and puts it into a broader context, a detailed animation that clearly illustrates the topic (there are a few tutorials that include simulations or other types of content, rather than animations), a conclusion that summarizes what you should have learned from the animation, and a quiz on the topic covered.
Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function
Appears simplistic but tell the students to work with Ben throughout his bad day.  An excellent way to apply disparate facts to a single system.
This deals with the thermodynamics that regulate homeostasis.
Animal Nutrition and Digestion
Insulin and glucose regulation
Freeman’s book is considered a non-major undergraduate book while Campbell is considered the book for biology majors.  However, Freeman has some nice visuals.
General Gastrointestinal site from Australia. 
See “Your Digestive System.”
Under “Gastrointestinal diseases” review Helicobacter pylori.  This research won the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology in 2005 and is specifically mentioned in Campbell.
Circulation and Gas Exchange
The heart
Virtual Cardiology Lab
Go to BioInteractive:  Click on Virtual Labs (top of page)  and scroll to the Cardiology Lab.  This is an excellent lab.  It is far more detailed than anything asked by USABO or IBO. However, for an advanced student or a teacher seeking to provide enrichment on the heart, it is simply excellent.  The first stethoscope portion is most applicable to USABO.   The virtual lab makes the student/teacher a medical intern and provides the opportunity to actually listen and see auscultation, MRI, echocardiogram etc.  Furthermore, it allows the student/teacher to practice listening and critical thinking skills.  For someone considering a medical career it is a very enjoyable way of learning the basics of cardiac function. 
Summary of all you need to know on a single webpage.
The links at the bottom either add nothing or do not function.
Very basic visuals that show how the lungs function.
Freeman’s book is considered a non-major undergraduate book while Campbell is considered the book for biology majors. 
The Immune System
Solid overview that matches what is in Campbell.
Good set of basic immunology questions.
Introduction to antibodies.
The National Cancer Institute has put together 38 slides with explanations about the immune system.  Highly recommended for teachers or for individual study. Excellent graphics and it can be downloaded as a full PowerPoint presentation for the classroom.  Adobe handouts are also available (  The slides are not locked so an instructor may mix and match.  The slides range from a basic explanation of antigen to genetic therapy.
A very brief introduction to the virus.  While not specifically listed on IBO guidelines, students should know the difference between eukaryotic, prokaryotic and viral structure and genomic arrangement. excellent introduction to viral structure.
Osmoregulation and Excretion
The opening section is excellent. It summarizes pages of words in 3 minutes. Ignore the second part on diuretics. 
Hormones and the Endocrine System  Accurate walkthrough of each gland.  It repeats most of Campbell. Basic resource if you have a specific question.  Easy to read and understand.
The Endocrine System related to the Nervous System: Taken from This is enough detail for students.  The nervous and endocrine systems are related in three main areas, structure, chemical, and function. The endocrine and nervous system work parallel with each other and in conjunction function in maintaining homeostasis, development and reproduction. Both systems are the communication links of the body and aid the body’s life systems to function correctly and in relation to each other.
Structurally many of the endocrine systems glands and tissues are rooted in the nervous system, Such glands as the hypothalamus and posterior pituitary are examples of nerve tissues that influence the function of a gland and it’s secretion of hormones. Not only does the hypothalamus secrete hormones into the bloodstream, but it regulates the release of hormones in the posterior pituitary gland. Those that are not made of nervous tissue once were. The adrenal medulla is derived from the same cells that produce certain ganglia.
Chemically both the endocrine and nervous system function in communication by means of the same transmitters but use them in different ways. Hormones are utilized by both systems in signaling an example of this can be seen in the use of Norepinephrine. Norepinephrine functions as a neurotransmitter in the nervous system and as an adrenal hormone in the endocrine system.
Functionally the nervous and endocrine system work hand in hand acting in communicating and driving hormonal changes. They work in maintaining homeostasis and respond to changes inside and outside the body. Besides functioning in similar manners they work in conjunction. An example of this can be seen in a mothers release of milk. When a baby sucks the nipple of its mother, sensory cells in the nipple sends signals to the hypothalamus, which then responds by releasing Oxytocin from the posterior pituitary. The Oxytocin is released into the bloodstream where it moves to its’ target cell, a mammary gland. The mammary gland then responds to the hormones signal by releasing milk through the nipple. Besides working in conjunction with each other, both systems affect one another. The adrenal medulla is under control the control of nerve cells, but the nervous systems development is under the control of the endocrine system. 
Animal Reproduction
Animal Development
Nervous System
G-protein linked receptors
Review the Trimeric G Protein Cycle
Formation of Adenylate Cyclase
Maintenance of Membrane Potential
7 slides with narration that do an excellent job of explaining the basics.
Sensory and Motor Mechanisms
Basic readings for an educated public.  About the level of Scientific American.  Well written with good vocabulary links.  Click on the sense organ of interest. 
Basic overview from the Online textbook: Biology, by Kimball
Companion to the taste site below.  Again, this is suitable for a teacher or for a student doing research for a project.  For the USABO student it more detailed than required, but gives an excellent overview.
Taste Receptors
Campbell has only  a page on Taste.  The same material is covered at this site but in a little more detail and therefore may be better understood. 
The same type of website as above, only much more detailed.  Suitable for a teacher preparing a class.  Not required for the USABO student.
Complete summary. 
Complex Optical illusions
Simple optical illusions
From Biology, by Kimball.  A popular H.S. text.
Hearing and equilibrium
Basic facts
Invertebrate Physiology, Anatomy and Systematics   University of Nebraska at Lincoln Entomology Department is an excellent resource of pictures, facts and links. 
  1. Charts, Diagrams and Drawings provide dissection guides.
  2. Insects and their Relatives photos can be great practice if the students are interested in entomology.  In addition, teachers may use the photos with any class.  A great review of insects and leaves.
  3. K-!2 Resources:  See the Marine Insects for some fascinating facts and ideas.
Microbiology  Virtual Bacterial Identification Lab
Provided by