生物奥林匹克竞赛中最有用的生物学前后缀

martyna p 指点

准备参加生物奥林匹克竞赛的学生应该要能识别出单词部分,因为这些单词部分能够暗示单词的含义。 科学术语主要是建立在拉丁语和希腊语基础上的。 因此,Biolympiads.com列出了生物学中最常见的单词部分列表。

前缀 意思 例子
A
a-, an- not, without, lacking, deficient apetalous, atypical
ab- away from, out from abaxial epidermis
acou-, acous- hear acoustic
-aceous of or pertaining to proteinaceous
ad- to, toward adaxial epidermis, adhere
aden- gland adenohypothesis
adip- fat adipocytes
aero- air aerophile
agglutin/o clumping; sticking together aggliutination
agri- field, soil Agrobacterium
aig-, -algia pain neuralgia
alb- white albino
-algia pain neuralgia
alto- high altitude
ambi- both ambivalence
ameb- change, alternation ameboid
amni- fetal membrane amnion
amphi-, ampho- both amphibolic, amphipathic, amphibians
amyl- starch amylopectin
ana- away, up, back, again anabolism
an- without anhydrous
andro- male androecium, androgen
anemo- wind anemophily
ang- choke, feel pain angina
angi- blood, vessel, duct angiogenesis, angiotensin
ante- ahead of time, before anterior
anter- front anterograde
antho- flower antophytes
anti- against, opposite antitoxin, antibody
antrhopo- man, human anthropology
apo-, ap- away from, out from apoplexy, apocarp
aqu- water aquaporin
archaeo-, arche- primitive, ancient archeology
arteri- artery arteriole
arthr- joint arthropod
aster-, astr star Asteroidea
-ase enzyme amylase
atmo- vapor atmosphere
audi- hear audible
aur- ear auricle
auto- self autoimmune
avi- bird, flying avian
B
bacter-, bactr- bacterium, stick, bactericidal
baro- pressure barophile, barometer
bi- two biradial
bi-, bio- (Greek) life, living abiotic, biotic
-blast- sprout, germ, bud blastula, erythroblast
brachi- arm triceps brachii
brachy- short brachycardia
brady- slow bradycardia
branchi- fin Branchiostoma
bronch- windpipe bronchioles
but- with 4 carbons butane
C
calor- heat calorimeter
capit- head decapitate
carcin- cancer carcinogeneic
cardi- heart cardiomyocyte
carn- meat, flesh carnivore
carp- fruit pericarp
carpal- wrist metacarpal
cata- breaking down catabolism
caud- tail caudal
centi- hundredth centipedes
centr- center central
cephal- head cephalic
cerebr- brain cerebrospinal
cervic- neck cervical vertebrae
cheli-, chela- claw, pincer chelicerate
chem- dealing with chemicals chemotherapy, chemotaxis
chir- hand Chiroptera
chlor- green chlorophyll
chondr- cartilage chondrocyte
chrom-, -chrome chrome color chromosome
chron- time heterochrony
-chym chym juice chyme
cide to kill, a killer bacteriocidal
circa-, circum- around, about circumvallate
co- with cooperativity
coel-, -coelom cavity, space w/in body acoelomates
coll- glue colligative
coni- cone conifer
contra- against contralateral
corp- body corpuscle
cort-, cortic- outer layer cortex
cotyl- cup cotyledon
counter- against counterattack
crani- skull extracranial
crypt- hidden, covered cryptic coloration
-cul-, -cule small, diminutive molecule
cuti- skin pulmocutaneous
cyan- blue cynobacteria
cyt-, cyto-, -cyte , cyto-, -cyte cell, hollow container cytoplasm
-cyst- sac cyst- sac, pouch, bladder oocyst
-cycle ring, circle pericycle
D
dactyl- finger polydactylyl
de- away from, down degradation
deca- ten decapod
deci- tenth decimeter
demi- half demineralisation
dendr- tree dendrochronology
dent- tooth periodontitis
derm- skin epidermis
di- bi-, du-, duo-, dipl- two, double biramaous
dia- (Greek) through diapedesis
digit- finger, toe digital artery
diplo- two diploblastic
dis- apart, out disequilibrium
dorm- sleep dormancy
dors- back dorsal
dynam- power dynamometer
dys- bad, abnormal, difficult dyspepsia
E
ec- out of, away from ectopic
echin-, echino- spiny, prickly echinoderm
eco- house ecology
-ectomy ectomy appendectomy
ecto- outside of ectoparasite
-emia emia blood anemia
en-, em-, endo-, ent- in, into, within, inside embolism, endoskeleton
encephal- brain encephalitis
ennea-, novem- nine
enter-, entero- intestine, gut enterokinase
entom- insects entomology
-elle elle small micelle
epi- upon, above, over epiglottis
erythro- red erythrocyte, phycoerythrin
equi- horse equisetophyte
eth- with 2 carbons ethylene
eu- proper, real, well, good, true, normal eumetazoans
eury- widen euryhaline
ex-, exo- out of, away from exothermic
extra- beyond, outside extraembryonic
F
ferro- iron ferritin
-fer- bear, carry, transport afferent, efferent, transferin
fibr- fiber fiber, thread fibrinogen
fiss-, -fid divided into, split fission
flor- flower florigen
flu-,fluct- flux flow influx, eflux
foli- leaf
fore- before forebrain
fract- break fracture
G
gam- marriage gamete
gastro-, gastr- stomach pneumogastric, gastrin
gen- beginning genetics, glycogen
geo earth, land geotaxis
gloss- tongue hypoglossal
gluc-, glyc- sweet, sugar glycosuria
glut- buttock gluteus
glyco- glucose glycogen
-gnath- jaw gnathostoma
-gnosis gnosis knowledge, to know diagnosis
graph to write, to draw electroencephalography
grav- heavy
gymno- naked, bare gymnosperm
gyn-, -gynous female gynoecium
gyr- ring, circle, spiral gyrus
H
halo- salt halophile
hapl-, haplo- simple haploid
cent-, cente- 100
hector- hundred
-helminth helminth worm anthelminthic
hem-, heme-, -hemo blood hemorrhage
hemi- half hemichordate
hepar-, hepat- liver hepatitis
hepta- septem-, septi- seven
herb- grass, plants herbicide, herbivore
herp- snakes, reptile herpetology
hetero- different, other heterozygous
hex-, hexa- six
hidr- sweat hidrosis
hist- tissue histology
holo- entire, whole holoblastic
homo- man, human (Latin) Homo sapiens
homo- same, alike homozygous
hort- garden horticulture
hydr- water hydrolytic
hygr- moist, wet hygrophile
hyper- above, beyond, over hypersecretion
hyph- weaving, web hyphae
hypo- below, under, less hyposecretion, hypocotyl
hyster- womb, uterus hysterectomy
I
-iasis iasis disease, abnormal condition atelectasis
ichthy- fish osteichthyes
ign- fire ignite
in-, il-, im-, ir- not, toward, into influx
-itis itis inflammation appendicitis
infra- below, beneath infrared
inter- between intercostal
intra- inside intrathoracic
iso- equal, same isovolumetric
ir- not irregular
K
kata-, cata- down catabolism
karyo- nucleus karyokinesis
kel- tumor, swelling
kerat- horn keratin
kilo- thousand kilogram
kine-, kin- move kinetic, dyskinesia
L
lachry- tear lachrymal gland
lact- milk lactase, prolactin
lat- side ipsilateral
leuc-, leuk- white, bright, light leucocyte
lign- wood lignin
lingu- tongue lingual
lip- fat lipophobic
lith-, -lite stone, petrifying cholecystolithiasis
loc- place locus
logos, logy study biology
lumen- light chemolumenescence
luna moon
lyso-, -lysis break apart hemolysis
lymph-, lympho- lymph lymphocyte
M
macr-, macro- large macrophage, macrocephaly
mal- bad malabsorption
malac- soft osteomalacia
malle- hammer malleus
mamm- breast mammary gland
marg- border, edge marginal
mast- breast mastocyte
med- middle
meg- million, great megagametophyte
-mer mer part metamer
mela-, melan- black, dark melanoma, melena
mes- middle, half, intermediate mesencephalon
meso- middle mesolimbic
met-, meta- between, along, after metanephridia
meter meter (unit) centimeter
meth- with 1 carbon methyl
micro- small, millionth microorganism
mid- middle midbrain
milli- thousandth millimeter
min- small
mis- wrong, incorrect
mit, mis- send neurotransmitter
mito- thread mitosis
mole- mass molecule
mono- one, single monocyte, monosaccharide
morph- form, body morphology
mort- death postmortem
mot- move motile
multi- many multilobed
mut-, muta- change mutagen
my-, myo- muscle myosin, myoglobin
myc- fungus mycosis
mycel- threadlike mycelium
myco- fungus mycology
myriad- many myriapoda
N
nas- nose nasal
necro- dead necrosis
nemat- thread nematode
neo- new, recent neocortex
neprho- kidney nephritis
neuro- nerve neurilemma
noct-, nov- night noctural
non- not
nuc- center nucleoplasma
O
ob- against obstruction
oct- eight octopus
ocul- eye ocular
odont- teeth odontology
-oid oid similar to lymphoid, ameboid
olf- smell olfaction
-ole ole small bronchiole
oligo- few, little oligosaccharide
omni- all omnivore
-oma swelling, tumor sarcoma
onc- mass, tumor, bluk oncosphere, oncotic pressure
onco- cancer oncology
oo-, ovul-, ova- egg oocyst
ophthalm- eye ophtalmology
opt- eye optic
orb- circle, round, ring orbital
ornith- bird ornithology
orth- straight, correct, right Orthoptera
oscu- mouth osculum
os-, oste-, osteo- bone osteology, osteocyte
oto- ear otitis
ov- egg oviduct, ovipositor
oxy- sharp, acid, oxygen anoxygenic
P
proto- first, primary protoxylem, protonephridia
pachy- thick pachytena
paleo- old, ancient paleontology
palm- broad, flat palmate
pan- all pandemic
par-, para- beside, near, equal, alongside parathyroid, parapodia
partheno- virgin parthenogenesis
path-, -pathy disease pathology
ped- foot pedipalp
pent- five pentameric
peri- around pericardium
permea- pass, go permeable
phago- eat phagocyte
-philia, -phil- love, friendship basophil, eosinophil
-phobia fear, intense dislike hydrophobic
phon-, -phone sound phonology
photo- light photoreceptor
-phore, pher- bear, carry chromatophore, electrophoresis
phren- mind, diaphragm phrenic nerve
phyco- seaweed, algae phycobilin
phyl- related group phylogeny
-phyll phyll leaf phyllotaxy
physic- nature, natural qualities physiology
phyto-, phyte plant phytohormone
pinni- feather pinnate
pino- drink pinocytosis
plasm-, -plast- form, formed into plasmolema
platy- flat Platyhelminthes
pleur- lung, rib, side pleura
pneumo- lungs, air pneumonia
-pnea pnea breathing dyspnea
poly- many, much polygon, polyester polysaccharide
pom- fruit pome
por- opening pore
port- carry uniporter, antiporter
post- after, behind postganglionic
pre- before, ahead of time proenzyme
pri- first primitive, primordia
pro-, proto- first, before,forward, protostome
prop- with 3 carbons propane
proprio- one’s own proprioceptors
pseudo- false pseudoped
psycho- mind, mental psychology
pter- having wings or fins aptera
pulmo- lung pulmonary
pyr- heat, fire pyrogen
quadr- four quadriplegic
quin- five
R
radi- ray radial
re- again, back re-absorption
ren- kidney adrenal
ret- net, made like a net reticular fibers
retro- back, backward retrograde
rhag-, -rrhage burst forth hemorrhage
rhe-, -rrhea flow diarrhea, rheotaxis
rhino- nose rhinoceros
rhiz- root, rootlike rhizoid
rhodo- red rhodophyte
roto- wheel rotifera
rupt- to break rupture
S
sacchar- sugar disaccharide
sapr- rotten saprotroph
sarc- flesh, muscle sarcoplasm
saur- lizard lizard ichthyosaurian
schis-, schiz- split, divide schizogony
scler- hard sclereid
script to write
semi- half, partly semilunar
sept- partition, seven septa
sess- sit sessile
sex- six
sol-, helio- sun heliotropism
som-, somat-, -some body somatic cell
somn- sleep insomnia
son- sound sonolocation
spec-, spic- look at inspection
spermat-, -sperm seed spermatophore
spir-, -spire breathe spiracles
stat-, -stasis standing, placed, staying hemostasis
stell- stars stellar
sten- narrow stenosis
stereo- solid, 3-dimensional steroisomer
steato- , stea- fat steatorrhea
stoma-, -stome mouth, opening protostome
styl- pillar stylus
sub- under, below subcellular, sublingual
supra-, super-, sur- over, above, on top suprarenal
sym-, syn- together, with symporter
T
tachy- quick, swift tachycardia
tarso- ankle tarsal
tax- arrange, put in order taxis
tel-, tele- distant telencephalon, telson
telo- end telophase
terr- earth, land terrestrial
tetra- quadri-, quart- 4 tetrapods
thall- young shoot thallus
therm- heat thermophilic
thrombo- clot, coagulation thrombosis
-tom-, -tomy cut, slice tonsillectomy
top- place topology
toxi-, toxo- poison toxin
trache- windpipe tracheids
trans- across, through transstadial
tri- three
trich- hair trichomes
troph- feed autotrophic
-tropic, tropism turning phototropic
turb- whirl turbine
U
ultra- beyond ultrafiltration
-ule ule small saccule
un- not uncover
uni- one, single uniport
ur-, -uria urine glycosuria
-ura tail Anura
V
vas- vessel vasodilation
vect- carry vector
ven-, vent- come ventrolateral
ventr- belly, underside ventral
vig- strong vigorous
vit-, viv- life viviparous
volv- roll, wander Volvox
-vor- devour, eat carnivorous
X
xanth- yellow xanthophyll
xero- dry xerophyte
xyl- wood xylem
Z
-zoite (-zoon) animal trophozoite
zoo-, zo-, -zoan animal zoonotic
zyg- joined together zygote