Amino acid properties

Amino acids for USABO and biology olympiads by Martyna Petrulytė on Scribd

Model organisms for research

Below you will find some important information about organisms used in research. The Bacterium Escherichia coli The Fruit Fly Drosophila melanogaster The Nematode Worm Caenorhabditis elegans The Plant Arabidopsis thaliana  The Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Source: PIERCE, B. A. (2012). Genetics: a conceptual approach. New York, W.H. Freeman.


Life table and survivorship curves are important part of olympiads. Please find this useful handout below. Big thanks to Donovan pages 311 EE.pdf.

Revision notes for olympiad

Here you will find another great set of notes for quick revision before olympiad. Big thanks to:

Ecological niches

An ecological niche is the role and position a species has in its environment; how it meets its needs for food and shelter, how it survives, and how it reproduces. A species’ niche includes all of its interactions with the biotic and abiotic factors of its environment. Biological Niches Big thanks to

Michaelis Menten Equation

Michaelis Menten equation is used to study the kinetics of enzymatic reaction. Usually, the rate of reaction (a.k.a. velocity) is measured at several different substrate concentration values. Then, a plot of the reaction rate versus the substrate concentration can be used to demonstrate two useful kinetic parameters: Vmax and Km. Vmax is the maximum reaction rate that is observed when …


Enzymes are fundamental molecules for all living organisms that catalyzes almost all reactions. Thus enzyme biochemistry is a very important topic in biology. Below there is a lecture handout about enzymology. Big thanks to 08/Enzymes Lecture Handout 08.pdf.

Enzyme kinetics and thermodynamics

Below you will find a concise description of main principles of thermodynamics and enzyme kinetics. Big thanks to

Enzyme kinetics: types of inhibition

When studying enzyme kinetics, one very important topic is about inhibitors. There three main types of inhibitors: competitive, noncompetitive, mixed. Also you can come across uncompetitive inhibition. Below you will find some figures illustrating the differences between those inhibition patterns. Big thanks to 112 pdf files/Chem 112 Suppl. Files/Chem112EKHOrev.pdf.

Glycogen metabolism

Glycogen is the most important storage form of glucose in animal body. Thus, it is of paramount importance to understand how glycogen is utilized. Below you will find a concise outline of biochemistry of glycogen which is not covered in Campbell, but you can come across some questions regarding this in olympiads. Big thanks to

Linkage, Recombination, and Eukaryotic Gene Mapping

In this tutorial you will learn more about genetic analysis, recombination frequencies and linkage. Big thanks to


In olympiads you will encounter glycolysis very often. It is useful to remember the main enzymes, substrates and unique properties of reactions involved in this process. Also do not forget that glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm, not in mitochondrion. Big thanks to

Diffusion and Transport Across Cell Membranes

In order to successfully function, survive, and reproduce all cells require the ability to transport molecules in and out of the cell. There are two main transport types: active and passive transport. In the outline below you will learn unique characteristics of each. Big thanks to

Amino acid degradation

Amino acids are important biomolecules in living organisms, thus it is important to know how amino acids are recycled. Amino Acid Breakdown Big thanks to and

Mating systems in animals

Here you will learn more about mating systems which are descriptions of who mates with whom in the animal world. Big thanks to

Kin Selection & Inclusive Fitness

Learn more about kin selection, the evolutionary strategy that favours the reproductive success of an organism’s relatives, even at a cost to the organism’s own survival and reproduction. Big thanks to

From genes to phenotypes

Learn more about gene interactions and how they influence the phenotype of an organism. Big thanks to

Mechanism of Enzyme Action

Learn about the mechanisms of enzyme action. Here you will find some basic principles of bioenergetics, too. Big thanks to