Terminology of mycology

Hello, Here you will find some definitions – basic terms as they relate to mycology. A.    Basic Structures 1.    Hypha (hyphae plural) –  fundamental tube-like structural units of fungi. a.    Septate – divided by cross walls b.    Aseptate – lacking cross walls a.    Aerial – growing or existing in the air2.    Mycelium – a mass / mat of hyphae forming …

Introduction to mycology

Hi, A few of us pay attention to one of the most abundant organisms on the planet – fungi. In national olympiads you quite often can find tasks about fungi, however, in the IBO you may be asked to classify them or choose right answers from multiple choice about they properties as well as reproduction mechanisms and structures. INTRODUCTION Classification …

Glycolysis overview

Hello, Let me introduce by far the most important metabolic process of all cells -glycolysis. Glycolysis is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+. The free energy released in this process is used to form the high-energy compounds ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). Glycolysis is a determined sequence of ten enzyme-catalyzed …

Gene transfer in Bacteria: Transformation, Transduction and Conjugation

Hi, Let’s delve into microbiology and learn about gene transfer mechanisms:  Transformation, Transduction and Conjugation. Firstly, take a look at the video. This one is useful, too. Now let’s take a look at some theory notes. In bacterial populations mutations are constantly arising due to errors made during replication. If there is any selective advantage for a particular mutation (e.g. …

Transfection and Infection of Mammalian Cells

Hi dear, In this post you will find information about transfection and infection of mammalian cells. Big thanks to http://web.mnstate.edu/provost/ Firstly, a video. Then, a theoretical part.

Gene Transfer in Plants

Hi, In this tutorial you will learn about various methods used in gene transfer in plant cells. Big thanks to http://web.mnstate.edu/provost/ And a short video


Hi guys, Here you will find a review of mitosis. Big thanks to http://eebweb.arizona.edu/courses/ecol320/.

Population genetics IV

Here are some good summary of population and evolutionary genetics. Part 1 Part 2 Big thanks to http://www.eebweb.arizona.edu/courses/ecol320/.

Molecular evolution

Here you will find an outline of molecular evolution. Try to understand the calculations and formulas associated with populations. Big thanks to http://eebweb.arizona.edu/courses/ecol320/BirkyLectures/Sect19MolecularEvolution.pdf.

Organelle genetics

Hi guys, Here you will find a nice summary of organelle genetics. Big thanks to http://www.eebweb.arizona.edu/courses/ecol320/.

Variations in chromosome structure

Hi guys, Here you will find some summary of variations in chromosome structure. Big thanks to http://www.eebweb.arizona.edu/courses/ecol320/BirkyLectures/Sect16ChromStructVar.pdf.

Population genetics III

Population Genetics Population Genetics is the study of genetic events at the level of the population, and hence, genetics as it pertains to evolution. In studying population genetics, (one branch of evolutionary genetics), the investigator studies evolution by mathematically modeling changing gene frequencies in populations, and comparing those models to what happens in natural populations. The Terminology population: all individuals …

Electron transport system

Embedded in the inner membrane are proteins and complexes of molecules that are involved in the process called electron transport. The electron transport system (ETS), as it is called, accepts energy from carriers in the matrix and stores it to a form that can be used to phosphorylate ADP. Two energy carriers are known to donate energy to the ETS, …

Amino Acids & Proteins

For the hardest part in biology olympiads has always been biochemistry. Thus, I would like you to be the best in this field, so here you will find some good notes of amino acids and proteins from the biochemical point of view. Especially pay your attention to isoelectric point and pK calculations. The isoelectric point, sometimes abbreviated to IEP, is …


Just found a concise and fun slideshow about enzymes. A good review before olympiad. Big thanks to http://rvrhs.enschool.org/ourpages/auto/2013/10/8/45710277/Enzyme%20Notes%201-22.pdf.

Enzyme kinetics Part 2

To continue the topic about enzyme kinetics, you will find some good pdfs below. The main points to remember about enzyme kinetics are graphs with various types of inhibition. Let us examine enzyme kinetics as a function of the concentration of substrate available to the enzyme. We set up a series of tubes containing graded concentrations of substrate, [S]. At …

Enzyme kinetics Part 1

Here you will find some stuff about enzyme kinetics. The study of the rate at which an enzyme works is called enzyme kinetics. Firstly, some slideshows Another one Some practice problems More practice problems Big thanks to http://web.campbell.edu/faculty/chazotte/.

Acids, bases, titration curves

One more good manual for buffering and titrating problems. Also some buffering problems WITH answers. Finally, a good lecture from Purdue University which prepare USA students for the IBO. Big thanks to http://www.chem.purdue.edu/courses/chm333/Spring%202013/Lectures/Spring%202013%20Lecture%202%20-%204.pdf and www.ssag.sk/SSAG%20study/CHE/acid-base5.pdf.