Animal Anatomy and Physiology
Animations are often essential for understanding the flow and interactions of physiological processes. Most animations are one to two minutes and include audio instruction. The animation links given below can assist USA Biology Olympiad participants and instructors as they prepare for the competition.
Biology: 7th edition, Campbell and Reese
Students can have access to: http://www.aw-bc.com/campbell/ or www.campbellbiology.comif teachers will provide the access code for the book. This site contains animations, links, activities and primarily quizzes. Registration is required. The links below do not require registration.
Anatomy and Physiology Study Partner from McGraw Hill. http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/esp/2002_general/Esp/default.htm
This site contains excellent animations for the basics of animal physiology.
The level is AP or first year undergraduate. Supplements the Campbell disk.
The site is divided into 6 sections. You must click on the heading and then topics to return to the main menu.
Levels of Organization
Support and Movement
Integration and Coordination
Absorption and Secretion
Reproduction and Development
The animations are highly recommended. Most include voice over for explanation. Recommended animations are any that are needed to help the student move from static charts to dynamic, visual perception. A student can review the heart beating next to the graph of the cardiac cycle, inspiration and expiration showing changes in pressure in conjunction with muscle movements, urine concentration with the countercurrent mechanism, sound waves being transduced into neuronal activity in the ear and so forth. A student can review any animation that will help them integrate the physiological pathway.
The Virtual Body offers very introductory information.
Cell Cyclin Game
Fun for the end of the day!!!!
Gastrointestinal and nutritional
McGraw Hill: Three Phases of Gastric Secretion from chapter 43
This is hosted by the Johns Hopkins Gastroenterology and Hepatology Resource Center. To the left is the Digestive Disease Library with numerous animations. Knowledge of diseases are NOT required for USABO, however, the animations contrasting normal with abnormal may interest may biology students.
Excitable Tissue: Muscle
From McGraw Hill textbook; Biology, chapter 42
Muscle Sense, Tendon Organs, spindles, proprioception
Synaptic and Junctional Transmission
Resting Membrane Potential:
McGraw Hill animation from chapter 46 of Biology
Go to the ear tutorial, 45.1
Go to the eye tutorial, 45.2
Taste, Smell, Touch
Go to Sort Animation list, scroll to Medical Specialty, click on cardiology. The Animation List below will now show the cardiology animation available. Click on Cardiac Conduction System. Look below on the right and you will see a brief explanation of that module. Click on begin animation.
Countercurrent theory of urine concentration
Animal Form and Function
Introductory undergraduate lectures in anatomy and physiology – Podcast Lectures
Each lecture is approximately 75 minutes. This is not required but the lectures are exceptionally well done for those interested. Current lectures have links to the outline and blackboard. Additional advanced lectures, and lectures from previous years are available. Students may be interested in listening to a single topic. It should be noted that the lectures are by date, not subject. You need to listen to the first few minutes to determine the topic.
The physiology tutorials are from Chapter 41 to Chapter 52. The student may use any of these when studying. Each chapter has one or two tutorials, each about 2 minutes. Each tutorial has four elements: an introduction that describes the topic to be illustrated and puts it into a broader context, a detailed animation that clearly illustrates the topic (there are a few tutorials that include simulations or other types of content, rather than animations), a conclusion that summarizes what you should have learned from the animation, and a quiz on the topic covered.
Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function
Appears simplistic but tell the students to work with Ben throughout his bad day. An excellent way to apply disparate facts to a single system.
This deals with the thermodynamics that regulate homeostasis.
Animal Nutrition and Digestion
Insulin and glucose regulation
Freeman’s book is considered a non-major undergraduate book while Campbell is considered the book for biology majors. However, Freeman has some nice visuals.
General Gastrointestinal site from Australia.
See “Your Digestive System.”
Under “Gastrointestinal diseases” review Helicobacter pylori. This research won the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology in 2005 and is specifically mentioned in Campbell.
Circulation and Gas Exchange
Virtual Cardiology Lab www.hhmi.org
Go to BioInteractive: Click on Virtual Labs (top of page) and scroll to the Cardiology Lab. This is an excellent lab. It is far more detailed than anything asked by USABO or IBO. However, for an advanced student or a teacher seeking to provide enrichment on the heart, it is simply excellent. The first stethoscope portion is most applicable to USABO. The virtual lab makes the student/teacher a medical intern and provides the opportunity to actually listen and see auscultation, MRI, echocardiogram etc. Furthermore, it allows the student/teacher to practice listening and critical thinking skills. For someone considering a medical career it is a very enjoyable way of learning the basics of cardiac function.
Summary of all you need to know on a single webpage.
The links at the bottom either add nothing or do not function.
Very basic visuals that show how the lungs function.
Freeman’s book is considered a non-major undergraduate book while Campbell is considered the book for biology majors.
The Immune System
Solid overview that matches what is in Campbell.
Good set of basic immunology questions.
Introduction to antibodies.
http://www.biology.arizona.edu/immunology/activities/elisa/main.html Basic introduction to ELISA.
The National Cancer Institute has put together 38 slides with explanations about the immune system. Highly recommended for teachers or for individual study. Excellent graphics and it can be downloaded as a full PowerPoint presentation for the classroom. Adobe handouts are also available (http://www.cancer.gov/images/understandingcancer/PDFs/IMMUNE.PDF) The slides are not locked so an instructor may mix and match. The slides range from a basic explanation of antigen to genetic therapy.
A very brief introduction to the virus. While not specifically listed on IBO guidelines, students should know the difference between eukaryotic, prokaryotic and viral structure and genomic arrangement.
http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/virus.htmlfor excellent introduction to viral structure.
Osmoregulation and Excretion
The opening section is excellent. It summarizes pages of words in 3 minutes. Ignore the second part on diuretics.
Hormones and the Endocrine System
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookENDOCR.html Accurate walkthrough of each gland. It repeats most of Campbell.
http://www.endocrineweb.com/ Basic resource if you have a specific question. Easy to read and understand.
The Endocrine System related to the Nervous System: Taken from
http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Sciences/Zoology/AnimalPhysiology/EndocrineSystem/EndocrineSystem.htm This is enough detail for students. The nervous and endocrine systems are related in three main areas, structure, chemical, and function. The endocrine and nervous system work parallel with each other and in conjunction function in maintaining homeostasis, development and reproduction. Both systems are the communication links of the body and aid the body’s life systems to function correctly and in relation to each other.
Structurally many of the endocrine systems glands and tissues are rooted in the nervous system, Such glands as the hypothalamus and posterior pituitary are examples of nerve tissues that influence the function of a gland and it’s secretion of hormones. Not only does the hypothalamus secrete hormones into the bloodstream, but it regulates the release of hormones in the posterior pituitary gland. Those that are not made of nervous tissue once were. The adrenal medulla is derived from the same cells that produce certain ganglia.
Chemically both the endocrine and nervous system function in communication by means of the same transmitters but use them in different ways. Hormones are utilized by both systems in signaling an example of this can be seen in the use of Norepinephrine. Norepinephrine functions as a neurotransmitter in the nervous system and as an adrenal hormone in the endocrine system.
Functionally the nervous and endocrine system work hand in hand acting in communicating and driving hormonal changes. They work in maintaining homeostasis and respond to changes inside and outside the body. Besides functioning in similar manners they work in conjunction. An example of this can be seen in a mothers release of milk. When a baby sucks the nipple of its mother, sensory cells in the nipple sends signals to the hypothalamus, which then responds by releasing Oxytocin from the posterior pituitary. The Oxytocin is released into the bloodstream where it moves to its’ target cell, a mammary gland. The mammary gland then responds to the hormones signal by releasing milk through the nipple. Besides working in conjunction with each other, both systems affect one another. The adrenal medulla is under control the control of nerve cells, but the nervous systems development is under the control of the endocrine system.
G-protein linked receptors
Review the Trimeric G Protein Cycle
Formation of Adenylate Cyclase
Maintenance of Membrane Potential
7 slides with narration that do an excellent job of explaining the basics.
Sensory and Motor Mechanisms
Basic readings for an educated public. About the level of Scientific American. Well written with good vocabulary links. Click on the sense organ of interest.
Basic overview from the Online textbook: Biology, by Kimball
Companion to the taste site below. Again, this is suitable for a teacher or for a student doing research for a project. For the USABO student it more detailed than required, but gives an excellent overview.
Campbell has only a page on Taste. The same material is covered at this site but in a little more detail and therefore may be better understood.
The same type of website as above, only much more detailed. Suitable for a teacher preparing a class. Not required for the USABO student.
Complex Optical illusions
Simple optical illusions
From Biology, by Kimball. A popular H.S. text.
Hearing and equilibrium
Invertebrate Physiology, Anatomy and Systematics
http://entomology.unl.edu/ University of Nebraska at Lincoln Entomology Department is an excellent resource of pictures, facts and links.
- Charts, Diagrams and Drawings provide dissection guides.
- Insects and their Relatives photos can be great practice if the students are interested in entomology. In addition, teachers may use the photos with any class. A great review of insects and leaves.
- K-!2 Resources: See the Marine Insects for some fascinating facts and ideas.
http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/disease/vlab.html Virtual Bacterial Identification Lab
Provided by http://teacher.sanjuan.edu/webpages/dkaragianes/resources.cfm?subpage=95524
- Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Study Partner: Complete textbook (McGraw Hill) with relevant news articles, links, animations, powerpoints, study guides, quizzes, and additional support resources. Registration is not required.
- The Virtual Body: Basic information about the body.
- Anatomy and Physiology Links from Prince George’s Community College: Alex Imholtz, Associate Professor of Biology, Prince George’s Community College Homepage contains notes, diagrams, interactive games, and helpful links for Anatomy, Physiology, and Histology.
- Histology-World: Contains histology games, histology entertainment, and histology educational materials.
- Society for Developmental Biology Education Resources
- Histology Slides: Normal Histology, Utah University; MedPics UCSD; Histology Atlas, University of Wisconsin.
- Digestive System: Overview of human digestive system.
- Digestive System Anatomy: Powerpoint with in depth medical description and diagrams of the digestive system.
- The Digestive System: Comparison of invertebrate and vertebrate digestive system with diagrams and links.
- Gas in the Digestive System: Discussion of the role of foods in the health of the digestive system.
- Gastrointestinal Overview
- Kimball Biology: The Human Gastrointestinal Tract: General discussion of the GI tract.
- Pancreas Function: Simple overview of the pancreas provided by The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Research Center, Johns Hopkins University.
- The Gall Bladder: Provides diagrams and description of function, diseases, and treatments related to the gall bladder.
- The Liver: Provides diagrams and description of function, diseases, and treatments related to the liver.
- The Pancreas: Provides diagrams and description of function, diseases, and treatments related to the pancreas.
- Your Digestive System and How It Works: NIH discussion of digestive process and its regulation.
- Seer Training Model funded by the National Cancer Institute: Description and comparison of mechanical and chemical digestion.
- Biology Online: Digestion and Absorption of Food: In depth information on digestion, digestive organs, foods, and absorption of foods.
- Merck Manual: Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats Description of each group and nutrient value.
- Diets: Overview: Discussion of various diets, diet fads, and role of water, minerals, and the major nutrients in the diet.
- USDA: Major Nutrients Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats: Links and pdfs about major nutrients.
- Water: How Much Should You Drink Everyday? Mayo Clinic discusses the role water plays in a healthy diet in respect to how active you are and where you live.
- The Science of Breathing: University of New Mexico: Description of breathing and forms of breathing..
- Mechanism of Breathing: Animation of breathing.
- Human Respiration: Open course notes; includes photos, images, and diagrams.
- Images of Respiration: Please check before using as some are not copyright free.
- McGraw Hill Cellular Respiration Animation: Note: it takes a significant amount to download, but has an excellent animation.
- How Lungs Function YouTube.: Series of animations showing how the healthy lung functions and examples of the way lungs function with various health issues.
- Description and comparison of the respiratory organs in man and other vertebrates and invertebrates.
- Bing Images on Circulation: Please check before using images, as some are not copyright free.
- Animal Circulatory Systems: Circulatory system descriptions for several animals.
- Blood Components: Description of major components of blood.
- Blood: Basic description of components and information about blood donations with links and diagrams provided by American Red Cross.
- Platelets: Description of structure and function of platelets and associated disorders.
- Circulation and Gas Exchange: Powerpoint slides on vertebrate systems.
- Heart and Circulation: Description with animations of blood flow and vessels.
- How the Heart Works: National Heart and Lung Institute page on the heart.
- Lymph System: Description and animations of the lymph system and tissues
- Lymphatic System and Immunity: Description of the lymph system in relation to immunity and disease
- Understanding the Lymphatic System: Description of the lymph system with links and diagrams
- Functions and Diseases of the Lymphatic Sytem: Description of the lymph system funtions, diseases, and facts.
- Insulin and glucose regulation: Understanding the processes behind the regulation of blood glucose.
- Kidneys and How They Work: NIH Basics on kidney function.
- Osmoregulation and Excretion summary
- Renal Function: Understanding how the kidney works.
- The Formation of Urine: Detailed video of urine formation.
- The Mammalian Kidney: Animations and tutorials of urine production and kidney function.
- Nervous System: General Basic readings for an educated public.
- Biology Online: Nervous System: Tutorials on the nervous system.
- Nervous System: Description of the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, divisions of the nervous system, and brain structures.
- Kimball: The Organization of the Nervous System: Tutorial and animations of the nervous system.
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
- What is the Peripheral Nervous System? Description of the peripheral nervous system.
Central Nervous System (CNS)
- General Information: Interactive 3-D Brain anatomy and functions.
- What is the Central Nervous System? General description of the centrral nervous system. General Information.
- Anatomy of the Spinal Cord and How It Works. YouTube description and animation of spinal cord anatomy and function.
- Brain: YouTube of the anatomy of the brain.
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
- General Information
- What is the Autonomic Nervous System? Description of the autonomic nervous system.
- Kimball’s Sympathetic Nervous System: Diagrams, descriptions, and animations of the sympathetic nervous system.
- Kimball’s Parasympathetic Nervous System: Diagrams, descriptions, and animations of the sympathetic nervous system.
- Maintenance of Membrane Potential
- Resting Membrane Potential
- Action Potential: Harvard YouTube
- Paterllar Reflex: Arizona State University Powerpoint explaining the patellar reflex.
- General Information
- Ears: Overview of anatomy and function of the ear.
- Pituitary: YouTube overview of the pituitary gland and how it works.
- Pituitary Gland Adam: Animation of the function of the pituitary gland.
- Thyroid gland: NCBI detailed information on the thyroid gland anatomy, function, hormone actions, clinical cases and more.
- Islets of Langerhans: Complete information on form, function, and related health issues.
- Adrenal medulla: Complete informatinon on form function, and related health issues.
- General Description of the adrenal glands: Explanation of glucocorticoids, which help you deal with long-term stress, and androgens, which influence male sexual characteristics secreted by the adrenal cortex.
- The Human Reproductive System: Overview of human reproduction.
- Elephant Reproductive System: Diagrams, images, and description of elephant male and female reproductive systems and birth.
- Trilobite Ontogeny: Overview of trilobite development.
- Marine Invertebrate Zoology: Reproduction and Development: Powerpoint of various forms of reproduction in marine invertebrates.
Structure and function of male and female reproductive systems
- National Cancer Institute SEER Training Module on Male Reproductive System: Provides thorough description of the male reproductive system to include diagrams.
- Avian Male Reproductive System University of Kentucky: Description and comparison of avian and mammalian male reproductive systems.
- National Cancer Institute SEER Training Module of Female Reproductive System: Provides thorough description of the female reproductive system to included diagrams.
Ovulation and menstrual cycle
- Ovulation and menstrual cycle: BBC Description and diagrams of the menstrual cycle and ovulation.
- Human Fertilization: Description of human fertilization.
- Vertebrate Fertilization and Development: Distinguishes among viviparity, oviparity, and ovoviviparity. Describes the advantages of internal fertilization.
- Development of Sea Urchins
- Development of Chickens
- Formation of Neural Tube (referenced in slides)
- Differentiation of Neural Tube (referenced in slides)
- The Neural Crest
- Gamete Fusion and the Prevention of Polyspermy
Formation of ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
- Embryonic Membranes: Germ Layers from The EmbryoProject Encyclopedia.
- Formation of Germ Layers: YouTube animation of germ layer formation.
- Introduction to Immunology: This problem set is designed to introduce basic concepts about the immune system.
- Basic introduction to ELISA: Introduction to ELISA activity to include animations, data sets, test problems.
- Introduction to viral structure: General description of virus structure and effects.
- Antigens from Microbiology and Immunity Online: Full description of antigens.
- Antigens Presentation, Kimball Biology Online: Full description of antigens with animations and external links.
- Introduction to antibodies
- Antibodies: ThermoFisher Scientific: Full description of antibody classes, interactions, and general diagram of antibody.
- What Is an Antibody? Site includes animation and full descriptions of antibodies.