DNA Day Essay Contest

admin Competitions

Check out this amazing opportunity! The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) invites you to participate in the 11th Annual DNA Day Essay Contest! The contest is open to students in grades 9-12. The contest aims to challenge students to examine, question, and reflect on important concepts in genetics. Essays are expected to contain substantive, well-reasoned arguments indicative of a …

Michaelis Menten Equation

admin Theory

Michaelis Menten equation is used to study the kinetics of enzymatic reaction. Usually, the rate of reaction (a.k.a. velocity) is measured at several different substrate concentration values. Then, a plot of the reaction rate versus the substrate concentration can be used to demonstrate two useful kinetic parameters: Vmax and Km. Vmax is the maximum reaction rate that is observed when …


admin Theory

Enzymes are fundamental molecules for all living organisms that catalyzes almost all reactions. Thus enzyme biochemistry is a very important topic in biology. Below there is a lecture handout about enzymology. Big thanks to http://webmedia.unmc.edu/alliedhealth/CLS/CLS414 08/Enzymes Lecture Handout 08.pdf.

Enzyme kinetics and thermodynamics

admin Theory

Below you will find a concise description of main principles of thermodynamics and enzyme kinetics. Big thanks to http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/biology/7-014-introductory-biology-spring-2005/readings/l5_bioche_deltag.pdf.

Enzyme kinetics: types of inhibition

admin Theory

When studying enzyme kinetics, one very important topic is about inhibitors. There three main types of inhibitors: competitive, noncompetitive, mixed. Also you can come across uncompetitive inhibition. Below you will find some figures illustrating the differences between those inhibition patterns. Big thanks to http://jameslab.ucsf.edu/PC_111/JOHN/Chem. 112 pdf files/Chem 112 Suppl. Files/Chem112EKHOrev.pdf.

Glycogen metabolism

admin Theory

Glycogen is the most important storage form of glucose in animal body. Thus, it is of paramount importance to understand how glycogen is utilized. Below you will find a concise outline of biochemistry of glycogen which is not covered in Campbell, but you can come across some questions regarding this in olympiads. Big thanks to http://www.chembio.uoguelph.ca/educmat/chm356/3560l9.pdf.

Plantae: Bryophytes & Vascular Plants

admin Plant biology

The Kingdom Plantae represents an extremely large group of mostly terrestrial organisms that are photosynthetic. Hence they provide the base of the food chain for most terrestrial ecosystems. Members of this group have ancestral ties to the Chlorophyta (Green Algae), and like them, plants have chlorophylls a and b, carotenoids, store food as starch, and have cellulose cell walls. Many …


admin Plant biology

Phytochromes are important pigments for plant growth and flowering. Below you will find a concise outline of the mechanism of action and effects of phytochromes. Big thanks to http://faculty.caes.uga.edu/pthomas/hort4050.web/Hort4050web/Phytochrome%20lecture.ppt.

Mating systems in animals

admin Zoology

There is a number of different mating systems among animals. Some animals tend to be monogamous, others are polygamous. In the outline below you will learn the similarities and differences between mating systems.   Big thanks to http://web.pdx.edu/~zelickr/animal-behavior/lecture-outlines/lectures2013winter/LS13-ch11-mating-systems-1.pdf.

Drosophila: from genes to phenotypes

admin Zoology

Drosophila has always been a role model in research, therefore it is useful to know the basics of its anatomy, physiology, genetics, and more.   Big thanks to http://home.sandiego.edu/~cloer/bio376f08/376f08_lectures/Lect12-14-376F08(Drosophila).pdf.

Linkage, Recombination, and Eukaryotic Gene Mapping

admin Theory

In this tutorial you will learn more about genetic analysis, recombination frequencies and linkage. Big thanks to http://www.webpages.uidaho.edu/biosci/labs/wichman/courses/Biology%20210/2006/Macs/Exam%202mac/Lec9and10RecombMap.pdf.

Plant diversity

admin Plant biology

Here you will find a quick review of plants: from tracheophytes to angiosperms. Big thanks to http://www.eebweb.arizona.edu/faculty/huxman/Huxman_lecture6.2008.pdf.


admin Theory

In olympiads you will encounter glycolysis very often. It is useful to remember the main enzymes, substrates and unique properties of reactions involved in this process. Also do not forget that glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm, not in mitochondrion. Big thanks to www.csun.edu/~jm77307/Glycolysis.pdf.

Diffusion and Transport Across Cell Membranes

admin Theory

In order to successfully function, survive, and reproduce all cells require the ability to transport molecules in and out of the cell. There are two main transport types: active and passive transport. In the outline below you will learn unique characteristics of each. Big thanks to http://biochemistry2.ucsf.edu/programs/ptf/prologue%20links/Diff%20&%20Trans%20Membranes.pdf.

Plant biology: stems

admin Plant biology

Plant stems are one of the major organs required for long-distance transport of water and biomolecules. In the outline below you will learn about different types and features of stems. Big thanks to ppongam-irsc.weebly.com/uploads/1/9/9/0/19902363/ch04_lecture.ppt

Amino acid degradation

admin Theory

Amino acids are important biomolecules in living organisms, thus it is important to know how amino acids are recycled. Amino Acid Breakdown Big thanks to https://www.tamu.edu/faculty/bmiles/lectures/amcat.pdf and https://www.rose-hulman.edu/~brandt/Chem330/Amino_acid_breakdown.pdf.

Botany: Stele types

admin Plant biology

In a vascular plant, the stele is the central part of the root or stem containing the tissues derived from the procambium. These include vascular tissue, in some cases ground tissue (pith) and a pericycle, which, if present, defines the outermost boundary of the stele. In other words, vascular bundle or the stele consists of three tissues: the pericycle, the …

The concepts of sensitivity and specificity

admin Developing practical skills

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures of the performance of a binary classification test, also known in statistics as classification function. Sensitivity (also called the true positive rate, or the recall rate in some fields) measures the proportion of actual positives which are correctly identified as such (e.g., the percentage of sick people who are correctly identified as having the …