Gene transfer in Bacteria: Transformation, Transduction and Conjugation

Hi, Let’s delve into microbiology and learn about gene transfer mechanisms:  Transformation, Transduction and Conjugation. Firstly, take a look at the video. This one is useful, too. Now let’s take a look at some theory notes. In bacterial populations mutations are constantly arising due to errors made during replication. If there is any selective advantage for a particular mutation (e.g. …

Transfection and Infection of Mammalian Cells

Hi dear, In this post you will find information about transfection and infection of mammalian cells. Big thanks to Firstly, a video. Then, a theoretical part.

Gene Transfer in Plants

Hi, In this tutorial you will learn about various methods used in gene transfer in plant cells. Big thanks to And a short video


Hi guys, Here you will find a review of mitosis. Big thanks to

Population genetics IV

Here are some good summary of population and evolutionary genetics. Part 1 Part 2 Big thanks to

Molecular evolution

Here you will find an outline of molecular evolution. Try to understand the calculations and formulas associated with populations. Big thanks to

Organelle genetics

Hi guys, Here you will find a nice summary of organelle genetics. Big thanks to

Variations in chromosome structure

Hi guys, Here you will find some summary of variations in chromosome structure. Big thanks to

Population genetics III

Population Genetics Population Genetics is the study of genetic events at the level of the population, and hence, genetics as it pertains to evolution. In studying population genetics, (one branch of evolutionary genetics), the investigator studies evolution by mathematically modeling changing gene frequencies in populations, and comparing those models to what happens in natural populations. The Terminology population: all individuals …

Electron transport system

Embedded in the inner membrane are proteins and complexes of molecules that are involved in the process called electron transport. The electron transport system (ETS), as it is called, accepts energy from carriers in the matrix and stores it to a form that can be used to phosphorylate ADP. Two energy carriers are known to donate energy to the ETS, …

Amino Acids & Proteins

For the hardest part in biology olympiads has always been biochemistry. Thus, I would like you to be the best in this field, so here you will find some good notes of amino acids and proteins from the biochemical point of view. Especially pay your attention to isoelectric point and pK calculations. The isoelectric point, sometimes abbreviated to IEP, is …


Just found a concise and fun slideshow about enzymes. A good review before olympiad. Big thanks to

Enzyme kinetics Part 2

To continue the topic about enzyme kinetics, you will find some good pdfs below. The main points to remember about enzyme kinetics are graphs with various types of inhibition. Let us examine enzyme kinetics as a function of the concentration of substrate available to the enzyme. We set up a series of tubes containing graded concentrations of substrate, [S]. At …

Enzyme kinetics Part 1

Here you will find some stuff about enzyme kinetics. The study of the rate at which an enzyme works is called enzyme kinetics. Firstly, some slideshows Another one Some practice problems More practice problems Big thanks to

Acids, bases, titration curves

One more good manual for buffering and titrating problems. Also some buffering problems WITH answers. Finally, a good lecture from Purdue University which prepare USA students for the IBO. Big thanks to and

Titration curves

If you have already read about buffers in Theory section, it’s time to learn a bit about titration curves. First slideshow: Second slideshow: In Singapore 2012 we have to do a titration with unknown amino acid and find what is it from the standard curve made after titration. I found a similar lab protocol with answers so study it carefully. …


Here you will find theoretical material about buffers. According to Wikipedia, a buffer (more precisely, pH buffer or hydrogen ion buffer) is an aqueous solution consisting of a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base, or vice versa. Its pH changes very little when a small amount of strong acid or base is added to it and thus …

Principles of Gene Mapping & Practice Problems

Let’s get acquainted with gene mapping. A genetic map is simply a representation of the distribution of a set of loci within the genome. The loci included by an investigator in any one mapping project may bear no relation to each other at all, or they may be related according to any of a number of parameters including functional or …