It’s just the right time to start discovering population genetics and understanding basic concepts of Hardy-Weinberg law.
Population genetics attempts to describe how the frequency of the alleles which control the trait change over time. To study frequency changes, we analyze populations rather than individuals. Furthermore, because changes in gene frequencies are at the heart of evolution and speciation, population and evolutionary genetics are often studied together.
One more upload about population genetics
Some good notes here:
And the last upload about general info concerning population genetics:
One method of expressing variability is by analyzing the genetic data and expressing the data in terms of gene (or allelic) frequencies. Any gene will have at least two alleles. The summation of all the allelic frequencies, for all the genes that are analyzed in a specific population, can be considered a characterization of that population. Any population can have a wide range of allelic frequencies for each of the genes that are being considered. Furthermore, two populations do not necessarily have the same set of frequencies even though they are the same species.
The unifying concept of population genetics is the Hardy-Weinberg Law (named after the two scientists who simultaneously discovered the law). The law predicts how gene frequencies will be transmitted from generation to generation given a specific set of assumptions.
Below there are good notes about Hardy Weinberg law itself.
Also take a look at THIS website for some good examples.
Big thanks to http://www.ndsu.edu/pubweb/~mcclean/plsc431/popgen/popgen3.htm, http://faculty.buffalostate.edu/wadswogj/courses/303/303%20lectures/Hardy%20Weinberg.pdf, www.wou.edu/~guralnl/popGenet.PDF, www.life.illinois.edu/ib/201/ppt/PopGen1_post.pdf, http://www2.hawaii.edu/~taylor/z652/PopGen1.pdf and www.okstate.edu/artsci/zoology/ravdb/files/25.pdf.